Helminthiases are common among people. The reason for this is the large habitat of various types of helminths in nature, in addition, it is not at all difficult to get infected with them: water, food, dirty hands, contact with pets can serve as a source of infection. Signs of worm infection can proceed differently for each person, but most often patients complain of general malaise, stomach pain, fever and other manifestations of the disease. So, today we will talk about the symptoms and treatment of helminths in humans.
Helminths in the human body
Worms are scientifically called helminths. Helminths are all worms that parasitize the organisms of humans, animals, plants. Consequently, worms are not a specific type of parasite, but a whole group of different worms, three of which are the most common.
In modern society, worms are still widespread. Especially often helminth invasion occurs in children, hunters, fishermen and their families, as well as rural residents. Worms are a large detachment of parasitic worms that live on animals and plants, feeding and multiplying within the donor's body
Worms are a large detachment of parasitic worms that live on animals and plants, feeding and reproducing within the donor's body. Man is no exception. On the territory of our country alone there are more than 70 species of parasites. According to statistics, every third inhabitant of the Earth is infected with parasitic worms. It is assumed that there is not a single adult during whose life a single worm would not have settled into his body.
No matter how carefully parents monitor the cleanliness of their children's hands, it is almost impossible to protect them from worms (pinworms). Children explore the outside world, nature awakens special interest. They want to touch everything with their hands, taste it. People who eat fish, meat of wild animals and birds, homemade milk are at risk of contracting trichinosis and diphyllobothriasis.
Modern medical data show that many diseases occur due to the invasion of helminths. For example, oncology has been clinically proven to be associated with a long-term parasitic infestation. The signs of the presence of worms in humans are often misinterpreted by doctors and patients. They begin to cure non-existent diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Patients can go to doctors for a long time, complaining of malaise. They waste time, money and further damage their health by taking unnecessary medicines. Ultimately, recovery occurs only when the cause of the symptoms is eliminated. After adequate treatment, all associated symptoms cease to bother patients.
Which organs can parasites live in?
Parasitic worms are divided into two categories, which correspond to the site of activity in the donor's body:
- abdominal - worms that live in various parts of the digestive tract. There are about 100 varieties of intestinal parasites, and for each section of the intestine there are a couple of dozen species. The small intestine is ready to receive roundworms, antilost, broad tapeworms and other less common "brothers". The small intestine will "share its living space" with pinworms, tapeworms and the rest. In the medical literature, cases are described when a person was simultaneously infected with several types of parasites;
- tissue - worms localized in organs, tissues and even blood. Modern medicine successfully copes with paragonymiasis (lungs), cysticercosis (brain), echinococcosis (liver) and filariasis (lymphatics). Some worm larvae move through the body through the circulatory system and randomly attach themselves to any organ. If many eggs are introduced, the whole organism can become infected.
How can you get worms
Helminth infection through the soil
Almost any contact with the soil poses a danger in terms of pest infection, therefore, after working with the earth, it is necessary not only to wash your hands with soap and water, but to carefully treat your nails. It is important to monitor the length of the nails in children and cut them in a timely manner. All products that grow in the soil and that a person consumes raw must be washed under running water and scalded with boiling water. Almost any contact with the soil poses a danger in terms of pest infection, therefore, after working with the earth, it is necessary not only to wash your hands with soap and water, but to carefully treat your nails.
This applies to vegetables, fruits and herbs. Pets that walk on the street are capable of carrying a huge amount of dirt on themselves, including parasites. Therefore, the contact of children and pets always carries the risk of infection. In addition, cats and dogs can be carriers of almost all types of helminths. Among the insects that spread the infection, flies are recognized as the most dangerous. They are frequent inhabitants of toilets, enclosures for cattle, after which they can crawl completely freely on food, carrying helminth eggs on their legs and wings;
Helminth infection from a sick person
As female pinworms mature in a baby's body, they crawl over the skin of the anal folds to lay eggs. An individual leaves about 5, 000 eggs near the anus. The process of laying provokes the appearance of severe itching, as a result of which the child begins to comb the problem area. Eggs spread in underwear, bedding, in the hands of the child. Then touch toys, doorknobs, furniture and other household items with these hands. Other children and adults also touch them.
Helminth eggs are attached to their hands, after which they are brought into the mouth during meals. The risk of invasion increases many times if you neglect the rules of hygiene and do not wash your hands before eating, after visiting the bathroom and public places. This is the mechanism of transmission of helminths from person to person;
Helminth infection through water
The waterway of distribution of the helminths is also a real problem. A huge number of eggs fall into the open sea, into wells, springs, etc. Therefore, it is so important to use filters with a bactericidal effect, especially for people living in rural areas. Always boil before drinking. The waterway of distribution of the helminths is also a real problem.
Parents must ensure that children do not ingest water while swimming in lakes and rivers. Also, you shouldn't drink water from open sources, not even from springs. Children are the most susceptible to helminthiases. This is due to certain reasons. First, it is easier for helminths to get along in a child's body, since his defenses are not yet fully formed, and the acidity of gastric juice is low compared to the acidity of adult gastric juice. Secondly, the child learns to follow the rules of hygiene on his own by about 5-6 years. Until then, he "tastes" the whole world around him.
Therefore, the risk of invasion not only of the child, but also of all members of his family remains, at least until the child enters school. No helminth is able to multiply indefinitely and exist in the human body. Everyone has a certain life expectancy and after a while they simply die. For example, nematodes live no more than a year, and pinworms no more than 2 months. In order for a person to become infected again, the eggs need to be reinserted into the digestive tract. Only in this way can the life cycle of helminths continue.
If you exclude the possibility of reinfection, that is, reduce the likelihood of ingesting invasive helminth eggs to zero, you can get rid of them without any treatment. But for this it is necessary to observe strict hygiene rules. Therefore, pinworms can be removed from the body in 3-4 weeks. However, preschool and primary children will definitely not be able to follow all recommendations.
Definition of worm infection in humans
The test to determine possible helminthiasis involves counting the positive answers to the questions presented. From their number, conclusions can be drawn about the risk of the presence of helminths in the body:
- itching in the anus periodically or constantly disturbs; headache often, dizziness occurs; rashes appear on the skin; nausea often occurs, which can provoke vomiting; worried about bloating, unstable stools (constipation is replaced by diarrhea);
- the quality of sleep at night deteriorated. Worried about insomnia, screams in a dream; the lower extremities often swell; the lymph nodes are enlarged; allergic reactions occur (bronchial asthma, urticaria, cough and rhinitis of an allergic nature); periodically there are pains in the abdomen, which pass on their own; a bitter taste appears in the mouth; pursues fatigue and chronic fatigue; there are preschoolers in the house. Work in a preschool educational institution;
- the skin and mucous membranes have a yellow tint; body temperature rises periodically for no apparent reason; sometimes joints and muscles hurt; grinding of teeth or snoring while sleeping; the diet includes such products as: sushi, dried fish, lard with meat inclusions; the weight is reduced. Increased or decreased appetite; fruits and vegetables that a person eats cannot be washed or blanched with boiling water.
If there are more than seven positive responses, there is a risk of the presence of helminths in the body. If there are more than 15 positive responses, then the probability of helminthiasis is very high and it is necessary to seek the advice of a specialist.
Symptoms of worm infection in humans
The signs that the worms have started in the body are not always easily distinguishable. Most often they are confused with the symptoms of other diseases or completely ignored, believing that nothing special is happening and that the body is just tired. However, this inattention could end in a visit to the operating table for an advanced case, instead of buying the pills, if the person seeks immediate medical attention.
Therefore, you should definitely consult a doctor if you have any suspicions or if you have several symptoms of the appearance of helminths from the list below. And it's definitely time to take care of yourself if all of a sudden the worms come out with feces (hard to believe, but there are people who can't be frightened even by this unmistakable symptom of helminthiasis! ):
- itching (irresistible urge to scratch) near the anus. Usually this sensation is pronounced in the evening before going to bed. This pinworm symptom can be called almost the main sign that the parasites have ended up in your body;
- rashes and skin irritations. Helminths aren't the first thing that comes to mind when such changes occur in the body. People usually think of allergies, exposure to chemicals, or mild poisoning. However, some worms cause symptoms similar to these in adults and children. The reason is simple: the immune system's struggle with unexpected "parasitic hosts";
- headache. This symptom is suitable for almost any disease, but it was still worth mentioning. Dizziness and pain recur due to the work of the immune system and the release of harmful substances by helminths;
- involuntary pain in the abdomen and mustard taste in the mouth. This is due to the fact that human worms do not behave peacefully enough, attach themselves to the circulatory systems, travel through the body, set their own rules in the gastrointestinal tract (gastrointestinal tract) and release harmful substances throughout their life;
- dead worms come out with feces. They are not always distinguishable, but if so they are a sure symptom of helminthiasis. Don't think that feces with worms are a sign that they are leaving and the body will defeat the parasites on its own. At all! The fact is that some types of helminths (for example, pinworms or roundworms) can live no more than a month or two. But this does not mean that they did not have time to leave offspring and through you to infect people with whom you communicate closely;
- loss or increase in appetite and relentless weight loss. As much as you want to lose weight, getting worms is unlikely to be the best idea. And although there are clinics that offer weight loss services by injecting parasites into the body, the safety of their services is questionable (more on stool transplantation and microorganisms;
- a symptom of worms in humans, but a clear provoking factor of the disease. So, if you have other symptoms and have a pet, don't forget to check for worms in the body. It is possible to become infected with worms from a cat or dog, and this often happens to their owners if preventive measures are abandoned;
- diarrhea, constipation, flatulence. The main symptoms of worms in humans are manifested in their habitat, usually in the abdomen, intestine and all nearby places;
- it is impossible to get enough sleep, teeth grinding, frequent changes of sleeping position. In most types of helminths, the main activity takes place at night, and therefore while you sleep, inside you "bubbles of life";
- work around animals or in public places. If you work in a kindergarten, school, farm, or shop assistant, you are much more likely to get helminths from someone than if you worked in an office or at home.
Unfortunately, there are no identical symptoms for all types of worms in an adult or children, as each species manifests itself in different ways, is found in different places and parasites on various aspects of our body.
Treatment of helminths in humans
Treatment of helminths is called deworming. It can be medical or surgical (some helminths can only be removed surgically). Folk methods of treating helminth invasion are also popular. In addition, you should also take care of personal hygiene and follow the rules of the kitchen. It is very important to take measures to stimulate the immune system, because during helminthiasis it is depressed. To rid the human body of helminths, you will need to take antiparasitic drugs. They have activity against various types of worms, so a doctor should prescribe them. Also, there are broad-spectrum drugs, but that doesn't mean they can be used alone.
About 70 species of parasitic helminths, including: flukes, nematodes and tapeworms. Only a doctor can determine which parasite lives in the human body on the basis of laboratory tests (fecal analysis, scraping for enterobiasis, blood test for giardiasis, etc. ).
Currently, parasites have about 10 different drugs in their arsenal that allow you to treat patients with helminthiasis. The dosage and course of treatment are selected in each case individually and depend on the age of the patient, the type of helminths, the presence of concomitant diseases.
Since some drugs are unable to destroy helminth larvae, but act only on adults, the risk of reinfection remains. To minimize it, it is necessary to undergo a second course of treatment after 14-21 days.
Folk remedies for worms in humans
To get rid of helminthiasis, you can try various foods that have proven to be quite effective in fighting parasites. Our grandmothers were also treated for such a scourge by breaking pumpkin seeds (by the way, they still have a lot of zinc).
Beetroot juice helps well - you need to drink it 1 tbsp. L. every day throughout the week. Watermelon is considered an effective remedy, but pregnant women should not get carried away with it: after all, there is a lot of liquid in watermelons, and this is fraught with an additional load on the kidneys and swelling. A useful remedy for worms during pregnancy is fresh pomegranate. In addition to the fact that it cleanses the body of helminths, everyone knows about its magical property - increasing hemoglobin, and it is very often recommended for pregnant women. So it turns out a double benefit for the body.
Herbal teas are useful and effective: cranberries, marigolds, valerian. In addition, they can be drunk both in pure form and combined with each other. The leaves of these medicinal herbs will help get rid of helminths, but at the same time have a gentle and gentle effect.
You can use not only teas, but also healing decoctions. In your case, chamomile, lavender and strawberry will be the best option.
Prevention of worm infection in humans
Despite the significant difference in the development cycles of various worms, it is possible to identify a number of preventive measures, the observance of which will help to avoid the disease. Mandatory washing of hands with soap after contact with the earth and animals, visiting the toilet and the street, as well as before eating - pest prevention
It is important to remember that the likelihood of worm infection depends on whether a person complies with the simplest rules of personal hygiene, the most important of which are:
- mandatory washing of hands with soap after contact with the earth and animals, visiting toilets and the street, as well as before eating;
- short trimming of fingernails and toenails (especially in children), as well as keeping them clean;
- Thorough washing of vegetables, fruits, berries, herbs and other products that could get earth and worm eggs;
- eat meat and fish purchased only in reliable places (commercial and public catering establishments) and subjected to thorough heat treatment to destroy worm eggs;
- use of water only from well-maintained water supply sources;
- refusal to swim in water bodies located near pastures and drinking troughs due to the high probability of getting worm eggs with animal feces;
- the destruction of flies and other insects that carry worm eggs on their paws.
Currently, there are recommendations for regular preventive deworming (treatment of worms) with drugs without previous laboratory tests.
To prevent reinfection with worms, such events should be carried out simultaneously by all family members, as well as by pets, as they are often a source of helminth invasion. However, it is important to remember that the prevention of worms with such drugs is carried out only by a doctor and only after an in-person consultation.